Sunday, 22 August 2021

Managerial Skills: Robert Katz


Managerial Skills: Robert Katz

Ø  Skills or competencies need to achieve goals

Ø  Technical skills: specialized knowledge, e.g. civil engineers, oral surgeon

Ø  Human Skills: understand human, motivate individuals, delegate, communication, conflict resolution

Ø  Conceptual Skills: Ability to diagnose complex situation, identify problem, alternative solutions.

Hawthorne Experiments and Human Relations


Hawthorne Experiments and Human Relations

Ø  Reasons for human behavior at work

Ø  Real cause of human behavior

Ø  Human relation approach of management

Ø  Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company, outside Chicago, manufacturing of telephone bell, 30000 employees (thirty thousand)

Ø  Problems related to pensions, workers benefits, sickness benefits

Ø  Productivity was low

Ø  1924 : National academy of science to investigate problems (low productivity)

Ø  Elton Mayo (psychologist), whitehead and Roethis Berger(sociologist) and William Dickson (company representative)

Ø  Study the relationship between productivity and physical working conditions

Ø  Four phases: each phase attempting to answer the question raised at the previous phase

Ø  Four phases of Hawthorne Experiment:

o   Illumination Experiment (1924-27): experiment to determine the effect of change in illumination on productivity.

o   Relay assembly test room experiment (1927-28): experiment to determine the effects of changes in hours and other working conditions on productivity.

o   Mass interviewing Program(1928-1930): Conducting plant-wide interviews to determine worker attitude and sentiments.

o   Bank wiring observation room experiment(1931-32): determination and analysis of social organization at work.

Ø  Illumination experiments:

o   Levels of illumination (light at work place, physical factors) affected the productivity

o   Hypothesis: higher illumination- higher productivity

o   Group of workers

§  Two separate groups

§  Experiment group: higher light illumination

§  Control group: continue constant illumination intensity

o   Increase illumination in experimental group, both group increased productivity.

o   Decreased intensity: No impact of deceased intensity on experimental group, decreased intensity at moon light level only

o   No impact of light intensity on productivity

Ø  Relay Assembly Test Room Experiment:

o   Effect of changes in various job condition on group productivity.

o   Relay assembly test room, two girls were chosen. They were asked to choose four more girls as coworkers (2+4=6).

o   Observer, girls were consulted before any changes

o   Changes and their result:

§  Incentive scheme: extra pay on the productivity of small group (other 5 girls output)

·         The productivity increased as compared to before

§  Two five minutes rests: morning and evening

·         Increased to 10 minutes

·         Productivity increased

§  Rest period was reduced to 5 Minutes but frequency was increased

·         Productivity decreased, affected the rhythm of work

§  Two rest of 10 minutes:

·         Morning: coffee or soup

·         Evening: Snacks

·         Productivity increased

·         Changes in working hours and work days

o   Girls were allowed to go home early

o   Productivity increased

§  Absenteeism decreased, morale increased, less supervision required

§  Revert back to original position, productivity increased

§  Development of attitude towards work, feeling of stability , sense of belongingness , freedom, responsibility and self-discipline

Ø  Mass Interview Program:

o   20,000 interviews were conducted

o   Employee attitude towards supervision, company, insurance plans, promotion and wages.

o   Complaints are symptoms of personal disturbance.

Ø  Bank wiring observation room experiment:

o   14 male workers, functioning of small group and its impact on individual behavior

o   9-wireman, 3-solderman, 2-inspector

o   Average wages on the basis of group output (Bonus)

o   Hypothesis : workers would produce more and in order to the advantage of group bonus (Earn more)

o   Workers decided target for them, less than company’s target

o   4 reasons:

§  Fear of unemployment: more production/ head, some workers would be put out of employment

§  Fear of raising standard

§  Protection of slow workers

§  Satisfaction on the part of management

·         Accepted lower production

·         No one was fired/retrenched

Ø  Implications of Hawthorne Experiments:

o   Group set certain norms, including personal conduct, employees create groups which may be different form of their official group

o   Social organization at work.

o   Organization is basically influenced by social factors

o   Elton Mayo “ A social system”

o   Conflict between organization and group created

o   Leadership: important for directing group behavior

o   Formally appointed leader: supervisor

o   Informal leaders plays important role in directing group behavior

o   Supervision:

§  friendly supervisionà increased productivity

§  Maintaining orders, controlled atmosphere :low productivity

o   Communication:

§  Important aspect of organization

§  Workers can be explained

§  Participation of workers in decision making and problem solving

Challenges and Opportunities for OB


Challenges and Opportunities for OB

Responding to globalization:

a.       Increasing foreign assignments

b.       Working with people from different cultures

c.        Employees born and raised in different cultures

d.       Coping with anticapitalizm

e.       Movement of jobs to countries with low labor cost ( low cost labor)

f.         Balancing the interest of their organization with their responsibilities to the communities in which they operate.

g.       Min. wages are high in America

h.       Americans wear clothes from India and china

Managing workforce diversity

i.         Workforce diversity: gender, age, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation, women, people of color, physically disables, senior citizens, gays and lesbians in U.S.

j.         Categories of workforce: ST,SC,OBC, EX-defense services, bonafide, displaced people

Improving Quality and Productivity

k.       Quality management:  the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organization process

l.         Process reengineering

m.     Quality of processes and products

n.       Very good is not good enough

Responding to outsourcing

Coping with temporariness:

o.       Expanded capacity, advance technology

p.       Fast and flexible organization

q.       Flexibility, spontaneity, unpredictability

r.        Jobs are redesigned continue

s.        Computers at banks

Working in networked organization :

t.        Internet and computers

u.       Different work place for many people

v.       Job perform from home, Non-office location

w.     Independent contracts, telecommunication, software programmers

Helping employees in balancing work/life conflicts:

x.       Extension of office hours

y.       Communication and technologies

z.       Work at home, car, on beach

aa.   Dual career couple

bb.  Flexible work schedule

cc.    Provide job security

Improving ethical behavior:

dd.  Create ethical healthy environment

ee.   Minimum degree of ambiguity regarding what constitute right and wrong behavior.

Improving customer service:

ff.      Behavior and attitude of employees

gg.   Employees attitude and behavior are associated with customer satisfaction

hh.   Customer responsive culture

ii.       Friendly, courteous, accessible, knowledgeable, prompt in responding to customer needs.

Empowering People:

jj.       Decision making is being pushed down

kk.   Freedom to make schedule

ll.       Procedure and to solve work related problems

mm.                       Full control to their work

nn.   Self-managed teams

10-Management Roles by Henry Mintzberg


Management Roles:

Ø  Henry Mintzberg (late 1960s)

Ø  10 roles, Highly interrelated

Ø  Interpersonal:

1.       Figure Head: symbolic head, legal and social duties

2.       Leader: Direction, Motivation

3.       Liaison: Maintain a network

Ø  Informational:

1.       Monitor: review of information

2.       Disseminator: spread information

3.       Spokesperson: transmit information to outsiders

Ø  Decisional:

1.       Entrepreneur: search opportunities, new projects

2.       Disturbance handler: corrective decision

3.       Resource allocator: make or approve decision

4.       Negotiator: represent the organization at major negotiation